Cow Milking in Sumrassa, a rural village in Kutch, Gujarat, India
The rural hamlet of Chikka Arasinakere in the South Indian state of Karnataka is run by a bull named Basava. Not exactly as landlord or mayor; more like an oracle. All major decisions, public or private, are put to Basava and he handles them so judiciously that his fame has spread throughout South India. Busloads of devotees now arrive from afar to consult the sacred bull, allegedly now 800 years old, thriving in his 25th incarnation.
Cow dung mixed with water is spread in front of the doorstep as a ground-base, upon which ceremonial 'rangoli' patterns are drawn. The dung-base floor is refreshed daily, serving as an insect-repellant and cooling agent.
A specialized 'govshala' or cow-dairy for breeding hi-yield cows in Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India. Some cows at this govshala are known to give 8-10 liters a day.
Nandi statue in Chaumundi hills, Mysore, one of the biggest bull statues in India.
Respected throughout much of India, cows are free to roam the streets, returning to their owners instinctively by evening.
With cities like Mumbai and New Delhi leaving rewards for homeless cows and bulls taken off the streets, the once ubiquitous bovine presence is slowly being relegated to occasional street art and religious parades.
Cows pulling plows near Mysore, India.
Growing tanneries such as this one in Dharavi, Mumbai, India, market animal hides for export.
In Bhuj, Gujarat, India, Jethi prepares dung cakes for sale before Holi, a religious day of prayer when ceremonial fires must be lit with a dry dung-cake. Living alone and abandoned by her family, the widow's entire year's savings depend entirely on her dung-cake savings.
Cows are increasingly made homeless in larger, growing cities like here in Mumbai, India.